Through 15 meta cosmic public chains, explain the value, status quo and trend of meta cosmic public chains in detail
1. The common chain of the meta universe is an important foundation in the technology stack of the meta universe;
2. The Yuanuniverse Public Chain Race Track is in its early stage, which needs to focus on infrastructure construction;
3. VR, AI, 3D rendering and other technologies are closely combined with blockchain technology;
4. The meta universe public chain improves cross chain interoperability, and EVM equivalence is a priority.
The meta universe is a virtual world constructed by human using digital technology, which is mapped or transcended by the real world and can interact with the real world.
The Metauniverse Public Chain is an infrastructure level open blockchain specially built for the Metauniverse and the decentralized digital world, providing necessary technical preparation and underlying development platform for the developers of the Metauniverse.
The data storage and transmission, NFT casting and splitting, distributed computing, rendering and other functions provided by the meta universe public chain make us closer to the vision of the meta universe.
This research paper will focus on the meta universe public chain, including two important components of the meta universe public chain: the decentralized rendering network and the game public chain.
The decentralized rendering network completes rendering tasks by integrating idle GPU resources worldwide. The game public chain creates a development and operation platform for NFT and chain games.
In general, the meta universe public chain is in the early stage of development. At this stage, the main task is to build a decentralized back-end of the meta universe, including computing, storage, query, network, etc.
Before the implementation of the meta universe and Web3, there is still a lot of room for improvement in the meta universe public chain. The meta universe public chain needs greater scalability to achieve large-scale consumer applications. The meta universe public chain needs to strengthen the combination with VR, AR, AI and other technologies to provide users with better meta universe experience.
Overview of the Metacosmic Public Chain
The meta universe public chain is an important infrastructure of the meta universe track, providing a development and user experience platform for NFT, GameFi, and meta universe projects.
At present, the meta universe is in the early stage of development as a whole, and there is a strong demand for infrastructure construction. The demand comes from data storage and distribution, 3D, payment methods and ID certificates of the meta universe, cloud computing, etc. These demands have contributed to the development of the meta universe public chain.
CITIC Securities' meta universe industry hierarchy diagram divides the meta universe industry into five layers: infrastructure (computing power, cloud, etc.), digital foundation, development tools, basic ecology and user end.
infrastructure:Arithmetic, cloud, etc. For example, in a decentralized rendering network (such as Caduceus), the rendering nodes complete rendering tasks by contributing idle GPU computing power to meet the requirements of the meta universe 3D rendering.
Digital Basis:Blockchain and Internet. All decentralized meta universe projects are based on blockchain technology.
Development tools:3D engine, VR/AR. For example, Caduceus provides creation tools that support 3D game materials/models, NFT casting transaction and splitting tools. Klaytn provides an open source suite for meta universe developers.
Basic ecology:Developers and applications. The meta universe public chain provides developers with development kits to help developers build meta universe applications based on the smart contract platform. Some meta cosmic public chains introduce EVM equivalence to facilitate developers to migrate meta cosmic project smart contracts from other EVM compatible chains.
Client:Projects built on the meta universe public chain cover NFT, chain games, entertainment, social networking, etc.
At present, the market size of the decentralized meta universe project has exceeded 10 billion dollars. CoinMarketCap data shows that as of September 14, the market value of the meta universe project has reached 11.48 billion dollars, accounting for 1.1% of the total market value of the encryption market.
Among the meta universe concept projects, the top five in terms of market value are ApeCoin, Decentraland, The Sandbox, Theta Network and Axie Infinity.
The two largest categories of the meta universe public chain are the decentralized rendering network and game public chain for deploying meta universe projects.
The decentralized rendering network integrates idle GPU resources worldwide, inherits the distributed characteristics of the blockchain itself, and users can earn token returns by contributing idle GPU computing power to rendering tasks. Representative projects include Caduceus and iPollowse.
The game public chain is a public chain specially built for NFT and online games. The high TPS, low gas fees and low network latency of the mainstream game public chain provide a good experience for online game players, online game developers, NFT publishers, NFT traders and other users. Representative projects of the game public chain include WAX and Klaytn.
Beep News sorted out 15 meta cosmic public chains, and some data are shown in the figure below.
4 Metacosmic Public Chains
This chapter will introduce two decentralized rendering networks Caduceus, iPollowse, and two game chains WAX and Immutable X.
（1） Introduction to Decentralized Rendering Network Project: Caduceus, iPollowse
Caduceus is a meta universe protocol for decentralized edge rendering. It is committed to providing services such as decentralized rendering, edge computing, 3D technology and XR extended reality technology for meta universe developers and creators.
Caduceus has created an open system at the computing power supply end. Each user can join the platform through Caduceus's technical module, contribute GPU computing resources, and provide services for film and television, traditional games, AI and other industries.
Caduceus will compute, render and store on the cloud GPU to complete the edge rendering, and transmit it to the display terminal through the streaming process. With the characteristics of massive computing and elastic use, Caduceus can shorten the rendering cycle and reduce costs while improving efficiency.
Caduceus's core components include a decentralized content distribution platform, high-performance meta universe infrastructure, and barrier free migration.
Decentralized content distribution platform: Caduceus provides a peer-to-peer content distribution platform based on IPFS, supports NFT-ERC20 copyright distribution, and supports a creative mining and advertising revenue sharing system based on smart contracts.
High performance meta universe infrastructure: Caduceus adopts multi-level distributed hash map structure, with unlimited expansion and large-scale parallel processing capabilities.
With BigBang's fully hardware programmable and accelerated blockchain consensus system, StarRing's transaction and execution engine, and Nebula's infinitely expanded block database, Caduceus can withstand the demand for task processing capability in highly concurrent and complex environments.
Barrier free migration: Caduceus supports the seamless connection between EVM and Solidity contracts, supports ERC20/NFT/DeFi cross chain migration and asset exchange, and is compatible with mainstream blockchain wallets such as MetaMask.
According to Caduceus' roadmap, Caduceus has launched version 1.0 of the main network in Q2 this year and will launch version 2.0 of the main network in Q4.
Caduceus will launch XR SDK, 3D Vlog platform, creator platform and edge rendering version 2.0 in succession next year.
3. Financing information
Caduceus completed a round A financing of $4 million in March this year. This round of financing was led by Susquehanna International, an encryption investment company, with Bin Zayed Group, BlockFills, Qredo, TokenInsight, Nukkleus and other investors.
4. Ecological project
Caduceus official website shows that there are more than 50 ecological projects. Projects supported by Caduceus include cross chain bridge, DID, chain game, Launchpad, etc. Specific projects include Multichain, DAOStarter, Celestial.
IPolloverse is a meta universe public chain project. It uses Web 3D as the main technical route, completes rendering tasks in the form of distributed computing network, and supports global users to provide idle GPU computing power for mining.
The technology stack of distributed computing network is summarized as 4A technology: Web 3D architecture, Advanced Network, AI, Avatar (avatar).
① Web 3D architecture
The technology of Web 3D architecture includes modeling technology, display technology and interaction technology in 3D scene.
IPolloverse is optimized using the graphic library of three.js, which is an easy-to-use graphic library formed by encapsulating and simplifying the WebGL interface.
IPolloverse adopts HARQ transmission protocol under 5G communication CAN (Computing Aware Network) architecture to achieve high-speed data synchronization.
The iPolloverse uses AI analysis and reconstruction, and uses the space unit as the preprocessing material. At the same time, it transmits the basic vision that each avatar sees and interacts in the entire space unit to the edge in advance. It preloads according to the movement prediction of avatar in the meta universe, which improves the loading speed.
Everything serves avatars. Every avatar in the meta universe is 3D, and you can get an immersive experience.
2. Test network performance
The iPolloverse test network has reached a GPU that supports 500 users. Each user is a 3D avatar of 15000 facets. The server bandwidth of each user has also been reduced to 300Kbps, thus reducing the cost of each user by three orders of magnitude.
IPollowse has set four growth targets. According to the goal of the fourth phase, iPolloverse finally plans to run more than 100000 GPUs on the network, with a storage capacity of 800 PB and a network TPS of 20000.
（2） Introduction to the game public chain project: WAX, Immune X
WAX is a blockchain ecosystem specially built for NFT, GameFi and Metauniverse projects. Users can create and trade digital assets related to NFT, GameFi and Metauniverse projects in the ecosystem on the WAX blockchain.
DappRadar data shows that there are more than 200 applications on the WAX chain. In addition, according to the official website data of WAX, the number of accounts on the WAX chain exceeded 13 million, and the average daily number of transactions on the chain exceeded 23 million.
According to the data of DappRadar on September 14, the three dApps with the highest number of users in seven days on the WAX chain are the meta universe game Alien World, the farming game Farmers World, and the NFT trading platform AtomicMarket. The number of users in seven days was 255000, 122000, and 50000 respectively.
The well-known meta universe games on WAX chain include Alien World and R-PLANET.
Alien World is a meta universe game that integrates DeFi, Staking, DAO, land, mining, fighting and other elements. Alien Worlds is set as a virtual world in 2055, where players can explore, mine and fight among six planets. The six planets have different styles and landforms. Players need to find the most suitable planet for mining and governance.
R-Planet revolves around the theme of mankind's search for a new planet to survive and multiply. Mars is the preferred target, and the game content includes the process of exploration and testing and home building. All props (land, tools, characters, houses, building materials, etc.) in the game are NFT.
2. Financing information
In June this year, WAX received a financing of 10 million US dollars from OKX Blockdream Ventures to further develop its ecosystem.
Immutable X is an NFT platform based on Layer2 and adopts StarkWare's capacity expansion technology. Immutable X supports 0 Gas casting NFT, and TPS can reach 9000.
As of September 14, users have forged more than 33 million NFTs and completed more than 7.5 million NFT transactions on the Immutable X platform this year.
CryptoSlam's data on September 14 showed that the NFT transaction volume on Immutable X chain in seven days was $829000, ranking sixth.
2. Ecological project
Immutable X official website shows that there are more than 80 ecological projects. Well known games in the ecology include Gods Unchained, Guild of Guardians and Illuvium.
These games have some meta cosmic colors. Take the Guild of Guardians as an example, players can form their own "guardian" teams and take risks with their guilds to earn rewards, defeat enemies and obtain trophies. Assets in the game are displayed in NFT, including heroes, monsters, Boss, items and icons, and environments.
3. Financing information
The latest financing of Immutable X's parent company, Immutable, was completed in March this year. Immutable completed a financing of $200 million with a valuation of $2.5 billion. Temasek led the investment, and Mirae Asset, ParaFi Capital, Declaration Partners, Tencent Holdings and other investors participated.
The Technology of Metacosmic Common Chain
Metauniverse public chain combines edge computing, AI, XR and other technologies with blockchain. This chapter will briefly introduce the use of edge computing, AI technology and NFT technology in the meta universe public chain.
（1） Edge computing
Edge computing is a network concept that is committed to making computing as close to data sources as possible to reduce latency and bandwidth usage. Putting computing on the edge of the network can minimize the long-distance traffic that must occur between the client and the server.
The decentralized rendering network cadeus combines edge computing technology and blockchain technology. Edge computing facilities can provide computing resources and storage capacity for a large number of decentralized network services of the blockchain, and solve the high-speed transmission problem when there are a large number of nodes. Blockchain technology provides a trusted and safe environment for edge computing network services.
（2） AI technology
AI refers to artificial intelligence. AI technology aims to research and develop human intelligence for simulation, extension and expansion. At present, digital human in the market is the result of AI technology. AI technology is needed to make 3D characters and their language and actions more realistic in the meta universe.
The decentralized rendering network iPolloverse uses AI analysis and reconstruction, takes the space unit as the preprocessing material, and transmits the basic vision seen and interacted by each avatar in the entire space unit to the edge in advance. It preloads according to the mobile prediction of avatar in the meta universe, which improves the loading speed.
（3） NFT technology
The NFT technology used in the meta universe public chain is reflected in the assets, environment, avatar image and other aspects of the chain. Taking the game public chain as an example, developers build a meta universe chain game based on the game public chain. The props, assets, environment, and characters in the chain game are presented in NFT images. These NFTs can be traded on the NFT trading platform on the chain, the game built-in market, and other places.
WAX, Immutable X and Flow are blockchains specially built for NFT and chain games, providing developers with tools for NFT casting, splitting and distribution.
Compatibility and Scalability of the Metacosmic Common Chain
（1） Compatibility of the Metacosmic Public Chain
The compatibility of the meta universe public chain is reflected in its compatibility with EVM, WASM and other virtual machines, facilitating the migration of applications on other public chains to the meta universe public chain.
Take Metaverse. Network and Ronin for example. Metaverse Network is the meta universe public chain of Poka ecology, which is compatible with EVM and connects it with Ethereum ecology. Smart contracts on Ethereum can also run on the Metaverse. Network chain.
Ronin is a side chain created by the Axie Infinity development team. Users transfer assets across Ronin and Ethereum chains through the cross chain bridge on the Ronin chain. Ronin is an EVM compatible chain, which facilitates the deployment of the future Ethereum ecological project in Ronin and the expansion of Ronin's ecological territory.
（2） Scalability of the Common Chain of the Metauniverse
The scalability of the meta universe public chain is reflected in two aspects: network scalability and ecological scalability.
Among the 15 meta cosmic public chains counted by Beep News, the TPS (number of transactions processed per second) of multiple meta cosmic public chains reflects their capacity expansion.
Among the five meta cosmic public chains in the figure below, the Immutable X TPS based on Layer2 exceeds 9000, while the TPS of WAX, Flow, and Klaytn based on Layer1 public chains also exceeds 1000.
On the technical level, Immutable X adopts the zkRollup expansion scheme. Users can cast NFT at 0 Gas. WAX supports high-frequency call game contracts on the chain and handles high-frequency concurrent transactions.
The ecological scalability is reflected in the expansion of the application scenarios of the meta universe public chain from DeFi, NFT, GameFi, and meta universe to a wider range of business scenarios.
The Value and Historical Position of the Metacosmic Public Chain
（1） The Value of the Metacosmic Public Chain
Messari researcher Mason Nystrom mentioned Web3 layer in the meta universe technology stack diagram in the article "The Role of Web3 in the Metauniverse", and divided Web3 layer into four sub layers: Web3 primitive, financial layer, Web3 infrastructure layer and protocol layer.
Take the meta cosmic common chain as an example to understand these four sub layers.
- The representative project of the protocol layer is the cross link bridge on the meta universe public chain;
- The representative projects of Web3 infrastructure layer are data storage and transmission network, rendering network and distributed computing network;
- The representative projects of the financial layer are DeFi protocol, NFT trading platform and other financial applications built on the meta universe public chain;
- The representative item of Web3 primitive is NFT, which is an asset that can be controlled and controlled by users in the meta universe.
The four sub layers of Web3 are the meta universe infrastructure currently being built by the meta universe public chain for developers and users, allowing users to gain the right to control, dominate and trade virtual assets in the virtual world of the meta universe.
The value of the meta universe public chain in the meta universe lies in providing users with identity system, data storage and use methods, providing users with realistic experience in the meta universe through edge computing, edge rendering and other technologies, and providing users with digital property rights, the basic element of the virtual world, through NFT.
（2） The common chain of the meta universe is at an early stage
From the perspective of the statistical meta universe public chain, blockchain still has a long way to go in realizing the real meta universe in our mind.
In the vision of the meta universe, we can socialize, trade, work and learn in the meta universe as in real life, which requires large-scale data storage and transmission, rendering, distributed computing, and full integration with AI, AR, VR, 3D and other technologies.
The meta universe public chain is taking this step, participating in the rendering of the meta universe avatar, environment, resources, etc., to make it more realistic, provide the underlying platform for NFT casting, splitting, and trading, and let users own the property rights of digital assets.
However, from the perspective of current track projects and adoption, there is still much room for progress in the infrastructure construction of blockchain and its integration with other meta universe related technologies. We are now in the stage of building and improving the underlying infrastructure. When the infrastructure is mature, large-scale adoption will become possible.