Bitcoin prequel (3): the encryption war in the 1990s
By Peter 'pet3rpan'
Compiled by: aidiaojp eth，Foresight News
This is the age when the cryptopunk movement came into being. A group of cryptologists won the battle against the invasion of citizens' privacy by the government.
In the second part, we discussed Chaum's continuous work in the field of public key cryptography and his research on anonymous communication, payment and decentralized services. His research content laid the foundation for the advent of cryptopunk, and later gave birth to the concepts of bitcoin and cryptocurrency.
In the third part, we will discuss the formation of the cryptopunk movement in response to the government's violation of personal privacy freedom. In this movement, TOR, Bit Torrent, WikiLeaks and Bitcoin gradually emerged. The cryptopunk movement will reveal the significance of Bitcoin and the technology behind it.
Starting from the 1980s
In the 1980s, great progress was made in technology, software and hardware.
In 1982, Adobe, Autodesk and Sun Microsystems were founded.
In 1983, Intuit was founded and released by Microsoft Word.
In 1984, Cisco was founded, Dell was founded, Microsoft Word was released, and HP released their first inkjet printer.
In 1985, AOL was founded.
In 1987, McAfee Anti Virus was founded.
In 1989, Adobe Photoshop 1.0 was released, and Apple broke into the top 100 US companies in terms of revenue.
Despite the rapid development of the world of science and technology, life, law and other areas of society have failed to keep pace. The Internet has been gradually ruled by hackers, and criminals have become more sophisticated, while the US government is still arrogant and arrogant.
Bill Clinton and his team try to understand Internet trends
FBI agent Baxter and Star Wars publisher Autodesk
Rock band lyricist John Perry Barlow was an early Internet user and a member of many online communities. In April 1990, Barlow received a call from the FBI requesting him to be examined. Although Barlow did not know why the FBI did so, he knew that if he refused their request, it would cause unnecessary suspicion.
A few days later, Agent Baxter, a FBI agent, came to his house and accused Barlow of being a member of the NuPrometheus hacker organization in connection with the case of the theft of Macintosh ROM source code. Although Agent Baxter did not provide any evidence to support his allegations, Barlow soon realized that he might be convicted.
As this is a crime of designing software and technology, you may think that you will send an agent who has some knowledge of it to investigate Barlow, but obviously not. According to Barlow, Agent Baxter did not know anything about computer technology, and the interrogation lasted nearly three hours.
Just like a father might laugh at his clumsy son at first, when Barlow sat in the interrogation room, he began to worry about the future of the United States. He realized that the events that agent Baxter and other government people were unfamiliar with computer technology and abused user information might threaten everyone's rights and freedom.
After three hours of trial, Agent Baxter asked him to leave. Later, Barlow released his experience on the world's first online social forum, WELL. Founded in 1985, WELL was a place that was often visited by trendsetters at that time.
Soon after, another person with similar experience contacted Barlow, who was Mitch Kapor, a software magnate in the 1980s and the founder of Lotus, a notebook software production company. Lortus released the first spreadsheet software, which was later acquired by IBM in 1990 for $3.5 billion.
1980s: Bill Gates on the left, Kapor on the right
Kapor was also accused of being a member of the hacker organization NuPrometheus. He was also shocked by the FBI's ignorance of software and technology. If the authorities do not understand these, how can they protect people's privacy.
A week later Kapor met with Barlow. When the snowstorm was still raging outside Barlow's office, they talked about their experience of being accused and the recent FBI Operation Sun Devil.
Our experience shows that many computer hacker suspects are no longer misguided teenagers who only play games, but high-tech computer operators who use computers to engage in illegal acts.
Unless there are reasonable reasons, people's personal safety, houses, documents and property shall not be unreasonably searched and detained, and no arrest warrant shall be issued without confirming evidence.
This roughly means that in order to fight crime, we can do whatever we want now. But we try not to violate or abuse anyone.
The first target of Operation Sun Devil is a hacker organization called the Legion of Doom. Shortly afterwards, members named Acid Phark, Phiber Optik and Scorpion were raided and accused of hacking into the telephone system. The FBI kicked in their doors, searched their homes, turned their houses upside down, and confiscated their computers, books, cell phones, recordings and other suspicious electronic equipment. Their families were not spared.
After Kapor and Barlow concluded their discussion, they both realized that the FBI's actions violated the rights of citizens, and were ready to take some measures to defend their rights.
The Matrix draws inspiration from three teenagers
Establishment of Electronic Frontier Foundation
Within a week, Kapor and Barlow set up a legal team in New York to defend the three teenagers and bear all legal costs. They work with RBSKL, a law firm known for defending civil liberties. This defense also became the first conflict between the government and individuals due to computer networks in the 1990s.
When a reporter followed up Barlow's experience in the FBI, Barlow talked about his debate with Kapor about hackers. Unexpectedly, a few days later, the newspaper headline was "The founder of LOTUS defends hackers".
News headlines swept across the public. Steve Wozniak, the co-founder of Apple, joined as a consultant and provided funds for the defense. John Gimore, a technology entrepreneur, also joined the advisory team.
Gimore is a self-taught programmer and the fifth employee of Sun Microsystem, holding a large number of stock options of Sun Microsystem. In his view, unless this is a sure right job, he will never accept it. He is known as a trouble maker and often annoys the National Security Agency. In 1989, he leaked a cryptographic paper prohibited by NSA. In the late 1980s, he hosted the ALT Forum, which was known as a gathering place for anarchists, lunatics and terrorists. In 1989, he founded a company called Cygnus Support to pursue the freedom of speech, software and encryption that he insisted on.
Not long after that, the US Secret Service once again seized a game company named Steve Jackson Games. The game company is making a video game called Cyberpunk. The Secret Service thinks it is a computer crime instruction manual, so it has closed down their office and even deleted many internal emails. This incident further shows that the Secret Service is reckless and out of control, and has no concept of digital rights.
On June 8, 1990, Barlow published his famous paper Crisis&Puzzle, in which he wrote about all the things Kapor, Wozniak and Gilmore participated in and defended them. He believed that the United States was entering the information age, but there was neither law nor consciousness to properly protect and transmit the information itself. At the end of the article, he disclosed the establishment of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which will make efforts to expand the cyberspace for the legal protection of digital information, and provide financial support for the legal defense of the violation of personal privacy.
Proposal of legal provisions on privacy of personal data
At the beginning of 1991, Senator Biden added a content to Bill 266, that is, to allow the government to access the plain text content of personal voice, data and other communications when properly authorized by law. In other words, the government is basically free to monitor all available communications.
At that time, a software engineer named Phil Zimmerman was building an encryption program. In the past ten years, he has been involved in a lot of activities concerning freedom politics as a core figure. Recently, he is building a tool that can let anyone who owns a computer use the RSA encryption algorithm to encrypt messages and files. RSA was at the military level at that time and was only used for commercial purposes. But Phil Zimmerman believed that everyone should be able to use powerful cryptography and anonymous communication. The program he built was called PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), inspired by Ralph 39; S Pretty Good Grocery.
He has been thinking about how to promote PGP. When he learned about Bill 266, he thought it was the best time. The government is about to legalize espionage, which is exactly what he hopes to prevent with PGP. He regarded the determination of the bill as the final period and handed over the PGP to as many people as possible. Phil Zimmerman rejected five acquisitions, saying that it was not a commercial product, but a human rights product.
He published PGP in May 1991 and wrote an article on the theme of Why I Write PGP. The user experience of PGP1.0 is not very good due to lack of funds and time constraints. In this article, he proposed:
If privacy is banned, only lawbreakers will have privacy. Intelligence agencies, large arms, drug dealers, national defense contractors, oil companies and other enterprise giants can use good cryptographic techniques, but most ordinary people and grass-roots political organizations cannot obtain and afford military level public key cryptography. Now, PGP enables people to keep their privacy in their own hands. The society will demand it more and more. That's why I created it.
He uploaded PGP to different forums and websites, and it is open source, free of charge, without any commercial use license. He wanted to give the military encryption technology to everyone. With the help of his friends, PGP began to spread. Within a week, people around the world began to use PGP, and within a month, thousands of people had downloaded it.
At the same time, due to the opposition of civil liberties groups, including the EFF, to Bill 266, Biden finally deleted this item, which in a disguised way promoted the popularity of PGP among the public.
May and Hughes, two crazy people
In the following year, Gilmore held a party in San Francisco and invited many cryptologists to participate. At this party, Eric Hughes met Timothy C. May.
Hughes, a young mathematician, has been working in David Chaum's Digitash since he came to Amsterdam. May was originally a hardware engineer at Intel. In the past three years, he has been trying to write a non-traditional novel about the future world described by David Chaum.
Although Eric is more than 20 years old and May is more than 30 years old, they immediately established a close relationship because of the same crazy free views. They are also fascinated by David Chaum's works.
Timothy C. May was raised by a naval officer when he was young. He is outgoing and rough. He has been a liberal who yearns for freedom since he was 12 years old. When Chaum was young, he liked playing with password locks and safes. May liked AR-15 assault rifles and drinking. He liked to hold heavy, cold metal guns and enjoy freedom and liberation. Later he became a hardware engineer.
In the 1980s, May was attracted by the wild west of the Internet world and dreamed that encryption technology could make many network activities easier and more secure. In 1986, after reading David Chaum's paper, he chose to resign. He wanted to write a novel about the world David Chaum described. After leaving Intel, May has a large number of stock options, so he doesn't have to worry about no income, so he focuses on the novel "Degrees of Freedom".
May tries to build a world dominated by digital currency, data "havens" (we can now understand them as blockchains), timestamps and NSA monitoring. However, like most teenagers who want to write spy novels, he never finished his novels. He is not satisfied with imagining an imaginary world in his novels, and starts to really create a real world.
Eric Hughes studied mathematics at Berkeley University when he was an undergraduate. He met David Chaum at a cryptography conference.
Chaum has been talking about the digital currency system, emphasizing the importance of anonymous payment in an increasingly digital world. Unlike others, Hughes was attracted by cryptographic technology and its political influence. After a short consultation, he went to Amsterdam to start working in Digicash under David Chaum. Although he was fascinated by his research, Hughes said that he did not like Chaum's character very much. He returned home after a short work in Digicash.
Earlier in May 1991, Hughes applied to Berkeley as a graduate student. When he was looking for a place to live, May offered to help, and they lived together for some time.
Hughes and May have been discussing cryptocurrency for several days in a row. A rich and failed writer and a young man in his 20s talked about mathematics, protocols, programming languages and secure anonymous systems all day long.
The first gathering of crypto liberals
Later in September 1991, May, Hughes and Gilmore wanted to hold a regular gathering of technical liberals, and the venue was Hughes' newly rented house. Therefore, on a Saturday morning in September, about 30 scholars, engineers and cryptocurrency advocates started a fierce discussion on the empty floor.
May prepared 57 pages of handouts, which introduced the concept of cryptography and future vision in detail, and distributed a copy of PGP2.0 software released the previous week.
After the grand distribution of the data package, he began to read aloud what he had becomeDeclaration of Encryption AnarchismCreate articles for.
This article is a political declaration written in May's short career as a writer in 1988. It depicts a future vision of a free world ruled by cryptography and mathematical rules. He originally wrote for CRYPTO88, a cryptography conference, and distributed hundreds of copies to participants, but no one cared too much about the political impact of cryptography.
But different from those who attended CRYPTO88, when May read the declaration, the cryptomaniacs who sat on the ground nodded their heads in agreement.
May doesn't believe that the company will protect privacy and freedom. Instead, he believes that mathematics can.
May commented in a video conference in 2017 that at least one or two people present were likely to have created Bitcoin.
By now you may have realized what a giant geek pioneer these people are.
In the remaining time, they use paper and envelopes to play a game with digital currency, information market, anonymity mechanism and trading system. In the course of the game, they naturally encountered the problem of the availability of metadata that Chaum first encountered, and were frustrated by the little progress in cryptography since the 1980s. They spent the night discussing cryptography, such as how to implement Chaum's hybrid network solution. Many people finally fell asleep on the bare floor.
The next day, when May and Hughes were buying breakfast, they suddenly thought that since a large number of potential cryptography fanatics were active in cyberspace, why should they limit the club to the physical world? They realized that they could set up chat rooms on the Internet.
In just one week, Hughes developed mailing list 1.0, which can be used to send mail to different users and hide the information of the original sender. At the same time, the mailing list is still being improved. Hal Finney uses PGP2.0 to encrypt emails, and Cottrell hides the time of sending emails through message batch processing.
Jude Milhon, editor in chief of Science and Technology magazine and Hughes' girlfriend at that time, commented: "You are just a group of password punks.".
Gradually, cryptopunk and cryptology became symbols of political contempt, as well as another pride of freedom geeks. One month after the first meeting, the mailing list is put into use. Members can subscribe via email firstname.lastname@example.org And communicate with each other.
13 years later, David Chaum's hybrid network concept was finally realized.
The Birth of Cryptopunk
Mailing list soon became the most hidden gathering place for illegal activities such as cryptography, drug trade and assassination in the United States. Julian Assange, the creator of TOR and Bit Torrent may be among them, and Bitcoin may have appeared or been discussed in the Mailing list.
Within a week, it had 100 subscribers. By the end of the year, there were more than 2000 similar mailing list addresses in the world.
On October 10, 1992, they released the first community announcement, announcing the details of the second offline password punk meeting, which is where Google is currently located.
Part of the announcement of the second meeting
Summarize password punk with a few simple features:
Cryptopunk believes that privacy is a good thing and hopes to have more privacy& nbsp;
Cryptopunk is therefore committed to cryptography& nbsp;
Password punks like to practice.
Password punk writing code.
Unlike other political movements in history, cryptopunk can defeat the government through direct action on equal terms.
Eric Hughes, Timothy C. May and John Gilmore Front Page Wired Magazine
When Gilmore ran his company and organized a gathering of crypto rebels, he also fought with the National Security Agency and won another victory for cryptopunk.
In June 1991, Gilmore learned about some books published by William Friedman, a cryptologist. After reading two volumes, he found that the other four volumes were confidential and could not be obtained. William Friedman is the founder of the US Signal Intelligence Agency, the predecessor of the US National Security Agency. Gilmore wants to know the remaining four volumes that are classified as confidential.
Finally, with the help of friends, he came to Virginia, found the exact books at the National Security Agency and mailed them to himself.
However, the matter is not so simple. When the National Security Agency learned about this, it asked Gilmore to hand over the books he took, but he refused the request: "These are only textbooks about relatively simple cryptographic technology, and they were obtained through legal channels." In order to avoid further interference from the National Security Bureau, Gilmore told the media about the incident. The National Security Bureau was forced to give up the pursuit of Gilmore and the book in order to avoid greater influence, and soon the book was completely published.
In fact, what specific value do these books have for Gilmore and Cryptopunk?
Obviously, it has no practical value. Gilmore just wants to stand up against the National Security Agency and prove that the government can be defeated. This time, he succeeded.
PGP2.0 is in trouble
At the beginning of 1993, PGP began to enter the sight of the US government. As a result of the RSA intellectual property dispute case, regulators began to pay attention to Zimmerman, and launched a criminal investigation into violations of the Arms Export Control Act. Since World War II, cryptography has been regarded as a military product, which belongs to the level of military supplies. The world in the 1990s was a digital world, and software and computer fields contributed to the major GDP of the United States.
With the arrival of the date of Zimmerman's lawsuit, the EFF (Electronic Foundation) and the public gathered behind him to support Zimmerman. In response to the government, he printed a copy of the PGP source code on the cover of the book. According to freedom of speech, books are protected by the First Amendment, but cryptography is not allowed. What about a book containing the source code of cryptography?
Although the public laughed at the government, Zimmerman could not deny that he violated the Ammunition Law. His star legal team unanimously believed that winning the lawsuit was hopeless.
Until a lawyer named Phil Dubois had an idea. Phil Dubois is famous for protecting criminals, celebrities and crazy people. His idea is not to deny and plead, but to continue to attack and portray the government as a threat to freedom, which will be the key to Zimmerman's victory. Fortunately, the government soon fell into a whirlpool of public opinion.
Shortly after the Zimmerman case, in April 1993, Act 266 appeared in another form: The Clipper Chip.
Defeat The Clipper Chip Act
The Clipper Chip Act was passed to allow federal, state and local law enforcement officials to decode intercepted voice and transmitted data. The bill further intensified the fermentation of public opinion.
Clipper Chip is a manufacturing standard for encrypted data. Similar to DES in the 1970s, it is a new attempt by the Clinton administration to manage national security. In other words, the government just wants to protect everyone and access everything they want anytime, anywhere. Although DES was suspected of having a back door in the 1970s, Clipper Chip more directly demonstrated the unreasonable requirements of the government.
Unlike the 56 bit key of DES, the Clipper Chip uses an 80 bit key. Like most government projects today, the quality of its work is not trustworthy.
Due to the long-term distrust of the government and the government's actions on public privacy in the past three years, the announcement of Clipper Chip has aroused strong opposition from the public.
RSA Good luck with Clipper
A group of very excited password punks
The official civil rights organization, the EFF, responded to the proposal and made a more moderate criticism of how it jeopardized freedom. However, it triggered the fanatical opposition and paranoia of the general public to the bill, and even felt that the dystopian world of 1984 was about to come true.
Unlike the tension between the government and the public, cryptopunks are quite excited at this time.
Imagine you predicted the end of the world and started preparing for it. Ten years later, it happened. Although the world is coming to an end, it's hard not to be excited when you see your conclusions are gradually becoming reality. Cryptopunk predicts and looks forward to this day.
The war will happen to us. Timothy C May said that the governments led by Clinton and Gore still haven't changed.
Timothy C. May, Eric Hughes, John Gilmore and other cryptopunks united with unanimous enthusiasm to oppose the proposal. Although Cryptopunk openly opposed the scheme and had a heated debate, many people, including May, did not actually take it seriously.
Because they know the flaws in the design of Clipper Chip and the flaws in public key cryptography. The design of the Clipper Chip will be a disgusting joke for them.
On the day it was released, May wrote:
First, the bad news is that the government wants to control cryptography. Although they are vague about this, it is clear that they will eventually try to prohibit the development of public cryptography. Zimmerman and others have attracted wide attention.
Now the good news is that the game is over and we win. The government may take action, but it still doesn't matter. The country we support made an ineffective attempt in the face of bad circumstances. This amazing policy announcement is actually a tacit consent to failure.
Everyone can easily get free military specification data encryption. Within a year, the equivalent voice encryption free software will appear, and the government can no longer prevent this from happening.
They held an emergency meeting in the office of Cygnus Support. The room was full of more than 50 password punks. They brainstormed to fight against the Clipper Chip bill proposed by the government.
After Tyler Durden's assignment, the password punks printed the objection declaration sticker, wrote the words Intel INside on it, and then pasted it in the computer store. Others designed T-shirts to fight Clipper Chip and printed lines from the anarchist declaration of encryption.
Seditious language against the American authorities
Whitefield Diffe was the main influencer in the Clipper Chip Act. Later, he wrote a famous open letter to the Clinton Administration:
The Constitution did not list the right to private conversation, and I think no one thought that it could be prevented at that time. With the vigorous development of electronic communication, close business cooperation between individuals will also develop rapidly. If we do not accept the right of these people to protect their communication privacy, privacy will soon only belong to the rich. The decision we make today on communication security will determine the type of social activities we will have tomorrow.
In 1994, a national committee composed of 40 experts, industry leaders and scholars wrote an open letter to the Clinton Administration, demanding that the proposal of Clipper Chip be withdrawn. These 40 people include:
Three creators of public key cryptography: Martin Hellman, Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle
Ronald Rivest, one of the three creators of RSA encryption
David Chaum, Founder of Digicash
Zimmerman, creator of PGP
We believe that if the proposal and relevant standards continue to advance, even on a voluntary basis, privacy protection will be reduced, innovation will slow down, government accountability will also be reduced, and the openness necessary to ensure the successful development of national communication infrastructure will be threatened.
The government tries to explain the security of Clipper Chip
In May 1995, the National Security Agency finally made a positive response. They did not give a clear reason to ensure its security, but responded through a meaningless press release, trying to ensure the security of Clipper to the public.
Bill Clinton, who looked sharp in 1994
Clipper encryption algorithm has high security. For AT& For the T TSD 3600 and other similar devices, these vendors use DES encryption almost entirely. DES encryption is based on 56 bit key information, and Clipper uses an algorithm based on 80 bit key. Although there are only 23 bits, it provides 16 million times of permutation, which makes decryption impossible in theory, so Clipper encryption is attractive.
By 1994, communication manufacturer AT& T began to use the chip to make hardware, but the ideology of cryptopunk has been widely spread. As the chip was released to commercial manufacturers, Cryptopunk soon noticed the actual impact of chip design defects.
An AT& by the name of Matt Blaze; T The embedded system engineer is responsible for testing the chips used for production. After careful inspection, he found that although the password itself is relatively secure, the NSA's access key to the encryption back door only requires 16 bit hashing and is easily cracked by violence.
Blaze is also a password punk and was involved in the design of mailing lists. After sorting out, he published his results in August 1994, successfully exposing the defects of the Clipper design. Shortly afterwards, the Clipper Chip was discarded by the government and commercial manufacturers.
The next year, the efforts of Cryptopunk will continue and turn into a series of legal battles.
Challenging the US Quartermaster Law
Shortly after the release of Clipper's vulnerability, a programmer named Phillip R. Karn began to challenge the government's practice of classifying cryptography as military level. He evaluated an encryption source code book containing encryption algorithms and found that the book should not be subject to the Quartermaster Act.
Karn continued to require a second evaluation of the CO disk in this book, which included the source code detailed in the book, but could not prove other cases, so it belongs to the classification in the Quartermaster Act. The subtle difference here depends on the possibility of potential malicious behavior by the media that stores the source code.
In 1994, Daniel J. Bernstein, a Berkeley student, tried to publish a paper on the source code of the encryption protocol, and challenged the Quartermaster Act in the Northern California Federal Court of Justice. According to Karn's precedent of suing the United States, the court ruled that the source code in his thesis was protected by the First Amendment. Although Karn's case has been ruled that the text form of source code is not restricted by the Quartermaster Act, Bernstein's case further proves that it is protected by the First Amendment. The legal policies on cryptography are also gradually improving.
Peter Junger will be the next person to challenge the Quartermaster Law. He is a law professor. He hopes his students will not only enjoy learning, but also develop the habit of exploring new concepts. In one of his courses, the course materials include an encryption program, which is restricted by the Quartermaster Act, so this course restricts the study of international non American citizens. He announced his opposition to the Quartermaster Act because of the obstruction of teaching and believed that the Act violated the First Amendment.
Junger's case will win later in 1999, thus proving the conclusion that encryption software will be protected by the First Amendment.
On October 12, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 13026, which formally removed cryptography from the military supplies list. This means that the Zimmerman case will also be dismissed.
The war was won, but was it over? Not yet.
Reward order for DES cracking
Later in 1998, when the remaining legal cases surrounding cryptography were closed, Gilmore hoped to continue to push forward and completely destroy the government's claim and participation in the future encryption technology.
The password punk community turned its attention to DES.
DES, originally released in 1976, is an encryption standard for commercial use. Martin Hellman and Whitfield Diffie once expressed strong opposition to DES, which also promoted the publication of public key cryptography. One of their criticisms of DES is that 56 bit keys are vulnerable to violent attacks in theory, but with their computing power at that time, this is considered to be infeasible.
But in 1998, the situation was different. RSA Data Security released a reward to see who can crack the DES security system.
In order to encourage everyone to participate, they set up a reward of 10000 dollars. Sure enough, DES was broken five months later.
Gilmore and Paul Kocher, a cryptologist, were challenged. Paul worked under Martin Hellman and received training. In order to complete the task of returning history to the origin, Gilmore and Kocher spent $222000 to build a computer called Deep Crack.
With the help of Deep Crack, DES was cracked within 56 hours.
Kocher and Deep Crack
After about 20 years of debate, DES was finally cracked, and was soon declared no longer exist.
By 2000, the government had removed all restrictions and regulations surrounding cryptography. Open source cryptography is legal and allows public participation.
In the early 1990s, the world, including governments, did not understand the future of cryptography. Cryptopunks fight for it and win. They do so to protect the right to privacy and freedom through cryptography.
They will continue to run amok, leaving behind their attempts, the rise of TOR and the dark network, torrent and piracy, WikiLeaks and transparency, and more relevant: Bitcoin and cryptocurrency.
In the fourth part, we will discuss the birth of TOR, Bit Torrent, WikiLeaks and Bitcoin.
1991 John Perry Gilmore (October 3, 1947 - February 7, 2018)
1991 John Perry Barlow and Mitch Kapor
1986 Bill Gates and Kapor (co-founder of EFF)
John Gilmore, co-founder of EFF and Cypherpunks in the 1990s
Eric Hughes, cofounder of Cryptopunk
Timothy C. May, co-founder of Cryptopunk
Timothy C. May at the 2017 Cryptography Conference
Phil Zimmerman, Founder of PGP
Left: Ralph Merkle, middle: Whitfield Diffie, right: Martin Hellman